Differential Diagnosis of Liver Disease in Poultry

Author:Lachance Time:2024-05-29 Hits:

In actual production,poultry are very vulnerable to live damage.After infection with diseases  such  as  inclusion  body  hepatitis,Escherichia  coli,vibrio  hepatitis  cecum hepatitis,leukemia  and  Malik,the  liver  can  have  obvious  pathological  changes, which brings great confusion to veterinary personnel in diagnosing the disease,and often delays the disease or brings serious losses if the diagnosis is not made in time.Therefore, it  is  necessary  to  conduct  a  detailed  analysis  of  the  pathological symptoms of these diseases to help identify and diagnose the diseases.

1.Inclusion body hepatitis (IBH)

Young chickens infected with IBH can die suddenly and with a high mortality rate.In IBH,the  liver  is  often  swollen  and  enlarged  and  has  yellowish  discoloration  and multiple   pale   and   or   red(hemorrhagic)foci.Histopathologic   lesions   in   the   liver include  acute  hepatocytic  degeneration,necrosis,mononuclear  cell  infiltration  and rare  to  widespread  basophilic  intranuclear  inclusion  bodies.Lesions  in  the  heart include myocardial edema and necrosis.



When chickens eat feed with excessive mycotoxin,it is easy to have mycotoxicosis  in the body.Due to the strong biological toxicity of mycotoxin,it can directly damage the liver and cause multi-focal hepatocyte necrosis and proliferation in the liver.In the  early  stages  of  mycotoxicosis,the  liver  appears  dark  red,as  the  disease progresses the liver becomes yellow and feels like rubber.The gallbladder mucosa is  inflamed,the  gallbladder  is  swollen  and  brittle,the  main  difference  between mycotoxicosis  and  other  diseases  is  that  the  hatching  rate  of  sick  chickens  is decreased.


3.Marek's  disease

Marek's  disease  can  be  transmitted not only vertically but also horizontally through the respiratory tract,and contaminated feed,water and   tools can also carry the virus.  After dissecting the chicken infected  with Marek's  disease,it  can  be  seen  that the liver,heart,lungs and     other surfaces have gray nodules like tumors.

4.Fatty liver syndrome

When the chickens ingest too much nutrients during the feeding process,it is easy to  deposit  a  large  amount  of  fat  in  the  liver  and  form  fatty  liver  syndrome.After dissection,a  large  amount  of  fat  can  be  seen  on  the  abdominal  cavity  and mesentery of the  chicken,the  liver  is  enlarged  and  gray,brittle  and  easily  broken, and fat can be seen clearly attached when cut with a knife.The surface of the liver is bleeding,and there are streaks or patches of blood below the capsule.The heat tends  to  yellowish-white,the  kidney  is  yellow,and  there  are  bleeding  spots  in  the intestines.Generally,according  to  the  large  weight  of  the  chicken  and  the  lesions after dissection,the preliminary judgment can be made,and then combined with the blood test  indicators can  be confirmed that the chicken  is  infected with fatty  liver syndrome.



Chickens  in the growing  period are  more susceptible to  histomoniasis and can cause  high  mortality.The  pathological  changes  of  the  liver  after  infection  with histomoniasis are typical,with enlarged liver and round,irregular and sunken ulcers on the liver surface.UIcers have raised edges,varying sizes,and yellow-green in the middle.In severe cases,ulcers will join together to form a large ulcer area.


The liver is a vital organ that is involved in a wide range of functions including the metabolism   of  fat,carbohydrate,protein,vitamins   and   minerals,removal   of  waste products,and  detoxification.The  liver  is  also  an   main  storage  site  of  fat-soluble vitamins(A,D,E,K)as well as vitamin  B12,glycogen,some  minerals  (Fe  and  Cu)and is also involved in the activation of vitamin D.It is essential that the liver is kept in excellent condition  in order to  build  immune system of poultry.Bile acid  has  been shown to be an additive that can protect the liver health of poultry.

Why bile acids is seen as liver"protector"?

1.Bile acids can activate  FXR-a  in  liver  cells,inhibit  the  expression  of  SREBP-1c, and then inhibit the synthesis of lipids in the liver,promote the synthesis of very low density  lipoproteins,accelerate  the  transport   of  fats   outside  the   liver  tissue,and

reduce the deposition of fats in the liver.

2.Bile acids can stimulate the liver to synthesize new bile acids through the liver and intestine circulation and also can promote the secretion of a large amount of thin bile from the liver cells,smooth the biliary tract and eliminate the biliary stasis.

3.As  an  excretory  fluid,bile  acids  can  effectively  decompose  and  remove  toxins accumulated   in   the   liver,so   many   drugs,heavy   metals,mold   toxins   and   other harmful  substances  are  also  discharged  with  the  bile  to  maintain  animal  health, reduce liver burden,and restore and strengthen liver functions.

4.Bile  acids  can  promote  the  secretion  of  substances  for   anti-inflammatory   to relieve the inflammatory and protect the liver health.

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