Bile Acids for Pig

The harm of mycotoxins to pig health and its solutions

The main hazard of mold is that the exotoxin and endotoxin produced by mold can cause adverse reactions in the animal body. Therefore, it is a relatively important issue in feed to avoid the contamination and harm of mycotoxins in feed production.

There are many reasons causing mycotoxins breeding, such as field mildew caused by extreme weather, not dried quick during to the loose seed and harvest mode, large -use of grain by-products, the use of aged grains, and households cannot inspect the premix material themselves, etc.


Part I. What is mycotoxins?


Mold refers to a filamentous fungus that forms luxuriant branches, and survives in a parasitic or saprophytic way.

Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites which was produced by certain molds during the growth and reproduction on substrates (raw materials or feed).

1. Mold is divided according to living habits:

(1) Storage mold: refers to the stored feed or raw material, which produce mold under the conditions of suitable temperature and humidity, and it mainly species are aflatoxin and secretes aflatoxin.

(2) Field mold: usually refers to the mold infected the crops before the harvest. Such molds also can multiply in low temperature environments, and more easier to grow in the cold and humid weather. The main species are Penicillium, ergots, Clostridium (Fusarium), secreting citrinin, ergot toxin, zearalenone (F-2 toxin), vomiting toxin, T-2 toxin, etc..

2. More than 300 mycotoxins are known at present. There are six toxins produced by the three molds are the most common and closely related to animal husbandry:

(1) Aspergillus

Aflatoxin - Liver poison

Ochratoxin - Nephrotoxicity

(2) Fusarium

Fumonisins

Zearalenone (ZEA)

Vomiting toxin (DON)

Trichothecenes (T-2)

(3) Penicillium ochratoxin


Part II: The harm caused by mycotoxins to pigs:

In actual production, the clinical acute symptoms caused by high concentration of mycotoxin contamination are not the main problem, and more commonly, the long-term and low-concentration of mycotoxins can bring subclinical symptoms to animals (such as growth performance degradation, immunosuppression, etc.), which is a real threat to animal health, growth and production performance, especially for long growth cycle animals such as sows, breeding pigs, breeders or ducks, and laying hens or ducks .

Part III: Why farmers will also respond to mycotoxin poisoning when feed mycotoxins do not exceed the standards?

1.Multi-toxin synergistic pollution aggravates toxicity.

2. Uneven distribution of the feed or raw materials can lead to severe local poisoning.

3. Combined toxins and free toxins.

Only a small portion of the toxin is present in free form (measured by conventional method for determining), and most of them are present in binding form and is bound with protein, starch and crude fiber, etc. (undetectable by conventional methods). The addition of digestive enzymes can promote the release of bound mycotoxin and thus can exhibit toxicity (Professor Lin Hai of Shandong Agricultural University).

4. Produced during use.

In the storage of feed ingredients, as well as in the processing, transportation and storage of feed, it may be contaminated by mycotoxins. They are usually colorless and odorless, and is impossible to tell their content in feed by naked eye. Even if the appearance of feed looks good, the toxin content can also be very high (bound toxin).


Part IV: Treatment methods of mycotoxins:

1. Mixed dilution method: Simply mix the mildewed feed with the unmutaged feed to reduce the concentration of mycotoxins in the feed. Although the method is simple in operation and low in cost, it does not fundamentally solve the problem, the toxin in the feed still exists, and can still be absorbed by the animal, resulting in accumulation of toxin in the animal body and endangering health.

2. chemical degradation method: the use of sodium hydroxide, ammonia, sodium hypochlorite, chlorine and other chemical substances to treat mildewed feed, so that the toxin decompose and reduce toxicity. The disadvantage of this method is that it is costly and difficult to operate, especially the nutrients will bedestroyed during the treatment, and the nutritional value and palatability of the feed will belowered, so that it cannot be used in the production of feed.

3. Microbiological explanation: There are some specific microorganisms that can degrade mycotoxins in moldy feeds. This method is difficult to operate at the current research level, and the cost is high, and it is still unable to reach the industrialization stage.

4. Physical adsorption method: a substance that can absorb mycotoxins is added to the feed, so that the toxin is not absorbed by the animal when passing through the intestinal tract of the animal, and is directly discharged from the animal.

However, the adsorption of the adsorbent is selective, and the adsorption capacity is limited, and at the same time, some nutrients (such as vitamins) are adsorbed. Although it is a relatively mature toxin treatment method in the feed industry, the effect is not satisfactory.

5. in vivo degradation method: by adding Lachance bile acids in the feed, can promote the degradation or excretion of mycotoxins in animals. Direct addition of Lachance bile acids to the feed, combined with an adsorbent, can solve the mycotoxin problem comprehensively.

Where does bile acids come from? Bile acids is synthesized by hepatocytes through cholesterol, is the main active ingredient of bile, and is also a major component of liver detoxification.


Part V: Main way of liver detoxification

1. Chemical methods: such as oxidation, reduction, decomposition, binding and deoxidation. For example, ammonia is a toxic metabolite, and its detoxification is mainly through the synthesis of urea in the liver, excreted with the urine. Toxic substances combined with glucuronic acid, sulfuric acid, amino acids, etc. can become non-toxic substances.

2, secretion: some heavy metals such as mercury, as well as bacteria from the intestines, can be combined with bile acids secretion with bile secretion.

3, phagocytosis: liver cells contain a large number of Kupffer cells, have a strong ability to phagocytosis, play a role in phagocytosis to protect the liver.

4, degradation: bile acids synthesized by hepatocytes can degrade endotoxin, combined with mycotoxins (mycotoxin is lipophilic), so that endotoxin, mycotoxins are converted into non-toxic substances, excreted with feces.

It can be seen that protecting the health of the liver ensures the detoxification function of the liver.


Part VI: Protective effect of bile acids on the liver

1, bile acids through the liver and intestine circulation, stimulate the liver to synthesize and secrete more new bile acids, causing many drugs, heavy metals and other harmful substances to be excreted with bile secretion, to protect the liver.

2, bile acids combined with endotoxin (LPS), inactivated endotoxin, not absorbed, reduce oxidative stress and inflammatory response, thereby protecting the liver from endotoxin damage (endotoxin reduces mycotoxin DON ~ vomiting toxin The dose of cytokine response increases the toxic effects of DON and increases the body's sensitivity to toxins.

3, DON (vomiting toxin) and FB (fumantine) can cause the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (such as IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 and TNFα), bile acids By inhibiting the expression of pro-inflammatory factors, it promotes the secretion and expression of anti-inflammatory factors (II-11β and TGFβ, TGFβ1, TGFβ2), prevents inflammatory reactions, and protects the liver.

4, bile acids as a regulator, activates the bile acids sensitive nuclear receptor (FXR), has anti-amidation characteristics, anti-cholestasis, anti-liver fibrosis, anti-inflammatory effect, protect the liver.

5, deoxycholic acid and ursodeoxycholic acid in bile acids can promote the secretion of a large amount of thin bile in liver cells, improve the solubility of cholesterol, smooth the biliary tract, eliminate bile stasis, and play a role in protecting the liver and gallbladder.

6, bile acids can improve the body's antioxidant capacity, increase the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione reductase (GR), remove fat Oxidation, endotoxin, and mycotoxins bring excessive oxygen free radicals to the animal's body, improve the body's antioxidant and anti-stress ability, and protect the liver.

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